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# The Formal Specification Language Z

## Introduction

The Z (pronounced Zed) language is a formal specification language that makes it easier to write mathematical description of complex dynamic systems such as software. The descriptions are usually smaller and simpler than any programming language can provide. They should contain a mixture of formal and informal parts.

Z was developed in Paris, France and Oxford, England.

## Z Archive

[ http://www.comlab.ox.ac.uk/archive/z.html/ ] (under rennovation July 2003)

Also see [ http://vl.zuser.org/ ]

## Spivey01

1. J H Spivey
2. The Z Notation: A Reference Manual (online)
3. Web 2001 [ index.html ]
4. =handbook formal logic Z SPECIFICATION

5. Earlier was [Spivey89] [Spivey92] Quote from web site
1. The Z Reference Manual has now been allowed to go out of print by the publisher, Prentice Hall, but they have kindly returned the copyright to me, so I can make the full text available here.

Please note that I have not placed the copyright of this work in the public domain. Nevertheless, I freely grant permission to make copies of the whole work for any purpose except direct commercial gain. I retain all other rights, including but not limited to the right to make translations and derivative works, and the right to make extracts and copies of parts of the work. Fair quotation is permitted according to usual scholarly conventions.

## Z Glossary

[ z.glossary.html ]

## Z Syntax

[ z.syntax.html ]

A minor problem with the spread of Z is that it is designed as language to be written rather than as a language to be input into a computer. Thus Z users often have to learn a version of the LaTeX mathematical type-setting language. On the other hand it makes the expressions much shorter and clearer than using ASCII. There are a few resources for people who want an ASCII form of Z:

Proposed standard lexemes for ASCII/EMail: [ z.lexis.html ] and PiZA [ PiZAHome.html ]

## Z Semantics

• JM Spivey
• Understanding Z:A Specification language and its Formal Semantics
• Cambridge Tracts on Theoretical Computer Science 3 Cambridge U press UK 1988

## Z Rattle Bags of examples etc

[ http://www.csci.csusb.edu/dick/cs320/z/ ] [ Z in methods ] [ zguide.tex ]

## Standard Z

[ http://www.lemma-one.com/zstan_docs/ ] [ http://web.comlab.ox.ac.uk/oucl/research/groups/zstandards/ ]

Local: [ zstandard1.0.dvi ] [ z.part1.ps.Z ] [ z.part2.ps.Z ]

Proposed standard lexemes for ASCII/EMail: [ z.lexis.html ]

## Z FAQ

[ z.FAQ.txt ]

## Z Fonts

The online manual [ index.html ] has links to useful fonts and styles for LaTex.

UK [ http://www.cs.ukc.ac.uk/people/staff/rej/Zedfont/latest/ ] [ zfont.zip ] [ http://ftp.ess.npl.co.uk/pub/dsg/vdmzfont/ ] A true type Z and VDM font is available from the Data Security Group ftp site: [ index.html ] //ftp.npl.co.uk/pub/dsg/

Finland: Here's a file called "lib.tar.gz" which has some fonts in it. [ index.htm ]

USA Text: [ Zedfont.README ] , BinHexed for Mac: [ Zedfont.sea.hqx ] , Windows [ Zedfont.zip.uue ] [ windows.font.uu ]

## Z Tools

[ tools in z ] [ 571904e76a39d7d1?hl=en ] (Z Word Tools) [ tools ] [ ztools.ms ]

## C++ to Z

[ http://www.dit.upm.es ]

## Z People

[ http://www.comlab.ox.ac.uk/oucl/people/ ]

jonathan.bowen [ jonathan.bowen.html ]

Roger Jones, at home: rbj@campion.demon.co.uk [ rbj.htm ]

## VDM vs Z

[ vdm in z ] [ UMCS-93-8-1.html ]

## Z via Tex and HTML

zed.sty [ html-z.html ]

## Books and Papers

[ bib.html ]

Local bibliographic items can be found by selecting: [ bib.php?search=%20Z%20 ]

## FAQs

Jonathon Bowen's Official comp.specification.z FAQ is in the UK //ftp.comlab.ox.ac.uk/pub/Zforum/faq.

My copy (USA) is [ z.FAQ.txt ]

## EMail archive

archive-server@comlab.ox.ak.uk archive-server@comlab.ox.ak.uk

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