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Fri Apr 2 07:47:03 PST 2004

Contents


    My Computer Languages Page

      General Resources on Languages


      (search): Some useful places to start a search for information on computer languages.
      1. Google [ groups ] Usenet Newsgroups (Hint: find the right group and search for "FAQ")


        (comp.lang): group [ groups?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&group=comp.lang ] (Programming language),
        (comp.software-eng): group [ groups?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&group=comp.software-eng ] (Software development),
        (comp.text): group [ groups?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&group=comp.text ] (Markup languages),
        (comp.infosystems.www.authoring): group [ groups?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&group=comp.infosystems.www.authoring ] (WWW Languages),
        (comp.specification): group [ groups?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&group=comp.specification ] (Larch, Z, miscellaneous specification languages)
        (comp.object): group [ groups?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&group=comp.object ] (CORBA and other Object-oriented stuff)

      2. FAST Search "Programming Language" [ search?cat=web&cs=utf-8&q=%22Programming+Language%22&_sb_lang=en ] (add your language to the search box at the top of the page).

      A Glossary of terms
      (glossary): [ languages.glossary.html ]

      General Resources: [ http://dmoz.org/Computers/Programming/Languages/ ] [ langlist ] [ http://www.utu.fi:80/~sisasa/oasis/ ] [ alternate.html ]
      (Esoteric Programming Languages Ring): languages [ index.html ]


      (Gary Leavens's Home Page ): home [ homepage.html ] ...and his literature recommendations [ literature-recommendations.html ]


      (The Incredible Wiki Wiki Web): wiki [ wiki?CategoryLanguage ]


      (source code samples): Claimed to be the largest public source code database on the Internet: [ http://www.Planet-Source-Code.com/PlanetSourceCode/ ]


      (history of computer languages): languages [ http://www.levenez.com/lang/ ]
      (Museum): languages [ default.htm ]
      (Scripting languages ): [ scripting4.html ]

      Research On Languages


      (Weird Programming Languages): [ weird.html ]


      (Bibliography): [ tildeBIB ]


      (CS620 Programming Language Theory Postgraduate Comp Sci CSUSB): [ intro.html ] [ http://www.csci.csusb.edu/dick/cs620/ ]


      (Imperial, college, university, IC, London, England, UK, Europe, Search): google [ docImperial?q=programming+languages&sa=Search&domains=doc.ic.ac.uk&sitesearch=doc.ic.ac.uk ]
      (SunSITE N. Europe language Archive): [ http://src.doc.ic.ac.uk/ ]


      (Chalmers University of Technology Goteborg Sweden): [ Home-E.html ] [ query.html?rq=0&col=chalmers&ht=0&qp=&qs=&qc=&pw=600&ws=0&la=&qm=0&st=1&nh=10&lk=1&rf=0&oq=&rq2=0&si=1&qt=Programming+Languages ]


      (Arizona university USA): [ http://www.arizona.edu/ ] [ http://www.cs.arizona.edu/ ]


      (Brigham Young university BYU Utah USA): language research [ http://www.cs.byu.edu/ ]


      (Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University CMU USA): (slow FTP access) //ftp.cs.cmu.edu/user/


      (Evolution Genetics FTP): //evolution.genetics.washington.edu/ at
      (University of Washington Seattle): [ http://www.cs.washington.edu/ ]

      Programming Languages


      (Ada): Languages [ ada.html ]
      (Adasoft): languages [ http://home.adasoft.com/ ]
      (Ada for C/C++ people): languages [ cpp2ada.html ]


      (Algol60): The Original ancestor of all tidy languages: [ algol60.syntax.html ]


      (B): The child of BCPL and direct parent of C. [click here [socket symbol] if you can fill this hole]


      (C): Developed from B... and went thru to incarnations: K&R C and ANSI C, then grew up to become [ C++ ] [ comp.c.syntax.html ] [ c.syntax.html ] [ c.semantics.html ] [ top.html ] And HHOS: [ C_Prog_Debug.html ]
      (C++): Child of C. [ c++.html ] [ c++.glossary.html ] [ c++.semantics.html ] [ c++.standard.syntax.html ] [ c++.syntax.html ] [ http://www.csci.csusb.edu/dick/c++std/ ]
      (STL): The Standard <Template> Library(STL) [ stl.html ] [ http://www.Planet-Source-Code.com/PlanetSourceCode/ ]


      (ici): Quote: "ICI is a C-like, high level language originally developed by Tim Long and placed into the public domain. ICI marries C's expression syntax, control structures and overall feel , with a dynamic, garbage collected, object-based, data model." [ http://www.zeta.org.au/~atrn/ici/ ] Note. Funny is that not what [ C# ] does?


      (C#): Csharp or C-Hash? A Microsoft controled version of C++ designed to compete and beat Java as part of the .NET final solution. See news stories: [ 2100-1001-242414.html?legacy=cnet&tag=st ] [ 0-1003-200-2154069.html?tag=st ]


      (Hungarian): A way of coding C programs with explicit types: [ comp.prog.5_Hungarian.html ]


      (COBOL): "I DON'T GET NO RESPECT." [ cobol.syntax.html ]
      (COBOLScript): languages [ http://www.deskware.com/ ]


      (ASP Active Server Pages): MS rival for server programming: see PHP and JSP [ wiki?ActiveServerPages ]
      (PHP): dynamic web pages, rival to JSP and ASP [ http://www.php.net/ ]
      (JSP): Java based scripting/markup language.


      (Javascript): scripting on pages and servers [ javascript.html ]
      (Java): Compiled OO on pages and servers [ java.html ]
      (P'Nuts Scripting languaage for the Java Environment): languages [ http://javacenter.sun.co.jp/pnuts/ ]
      (Java Certification Program): languages [ solutions.html ]
      (How to Write Bad Java Code): languages [ unmain.html ]
      (JavaPP: CSP primitives for Java Threads:Cooperating Sequential Processes): languages [ javapp.html ]


      (Pascal): Simple but powerful parent of Ada and Modular [ pascal.syntax.html ]


      (Smalltalk): First language hyped as object-oriented [ smalltalk.html ]


      (UNIX): The other operating system
      (sh): UNIX Bourne Shell [ unix.syntax.html ]


      (Eiffel): OO Engineer? [ http://www.eiffel.com/ ]


      (FORTH): Designed to control telescopes but uniquely flexible and efficient. [ http://www.forth.org/ ]


      (FORTRAN): the OCtober Horse of Languages. [ http://www.j3-fortran.org/ ]


      (LISP): List Processing -- (functional (simple (powerful (fun)))) [ lisp.html ] [ cltl2.html ] [ http://www.cs.cmu.edu/Groups/AI/html/cltl/clm/ ] [ lisp.html ] [ faq.html ]


      (ML): Meta-Language [ index.html ] [ ml.syntax.html ]


      (Scheme): Modernized LISP secure: [ secure.html ]


      (scheme-48): see Scheme [ http://s48.org/ ]


      (Prolog): Programming Logic [ prolog.html ] [ http://www.csci.csusb.edu/dick/cs320/prolog/ ]
      (Kernel Prolog - Open Source Project): logic programming languages [ kernelprolog.html ]
      (logtalk Object Oriented Prolog): logic programming languages [ logtalk.html ]


      (Perl): Pathological Eclectic Report Language and the engine that drives a lot of the WWW [ perl.html ] [ http://www.perl.com/ ] //www.csci.csusb.edu/dick/doc/perl.FAQ
      (Ruby): structured, object-oriented, tidy rival to Perl. [ http://www.ruby-lang.org/en/ ]


      (Modula-3): Grandchild of Pascal: exporting and importing for programmers. [ home.html ] //ftp.gte.com/pub/m3/linux-journal.html


      (charity): "Charity is a categorical programming language" [ home.html ]


      (ECLiPSe): (ECRC Constraint Logic Parallel System) is a logic programming system open for extensions, especially in the CLP area. [ reports.html ]


      (LOGO): a tool for learning [ programming.html ]

       		to logo
       		repeat manytimes [ typecommand ]
       		end

    1. LOTOS::="ISO Standard language that combines CSP/CCS with algebraic ADT to describe telecommunication systems", [ index.php?topic=Lotos ] [ http://www.cs.stir.ac.uk/~kjt/research/well/ ] [ lookup?from=methods&search=LOTOS ] Temporary Formal Definition LOTOS in MATHS
      1. LOTOS::=following
        Net
        1. Process::Sets.
        2. Action::Sets.

          P,Q,R,S:Process.

          a,b,c,d:Action.

          A,B:@Action.

        3. P-a->Q::@=P can be observed executing action a and then behaving like Q.

        4. STOP::Process, takes part in no actions.
        5. |- (LOTOS_stop): for no a:Action, P:Process( STOP-a->P).
        6. \delta::Action=observable termination of a Process
        7. |- (LOTOS_exit1): EXIT -\delta->STOP.
        8. |- (LOTOS_exit2): for no a:Action~\delta, P:Process( EXIT-a->P).

        9. Process Descriptions
        10. a;P::Process= a prefix P. P[>Q::Process=P disabled by Q.
        11. P|A|Q::Process=`P and Q synchonizing on A".

          Structural Operational Semantics

        12. |- (LOTOS_a2): a;P-a->P

          Rules

        13. |- (LOTOS_r1): P[>Q-a->R[>Q :- a<>\delta, P-a->R.
        14. |- (LOTOS_r2): P[>Q-\delta->R :- P-\delta->R.
        15. |- (LOTOS_r3): P[>Q-a->R :- Q-a->R.


        16. |- (LOTOS_r4): P|A|Q-a->R|A|Q :- a not_in A| \delta, P-a->R.
        17. |- (LOTOS_r5): P|A|Q-a->P|A|R :- a not_in A | \delta, Q-a->R
        18. |- (LOTOS_r6): P|A|Q-a->R|A|S :- a in A | \delta, a=b, P-a->R, Q-b->S.

          LOTOS example

          1. Proc::= Pdcc |ctrlc| Edcc.
          2. Pdcc::= Ping[>CtrlC.
          3. Ping::=ping; EXIT.
          4. CtrlC::=ctrlc; EXIT.
          5. Edcc::=EXIT[>CtrlC.

            then can show

          6. (above) |- Ping-ping->EXIT.


          7. (above) |- Pdcc-ping->EXIT[>CtrlC
          8. (above) |- Proc-ping->(EXIT[>CtrlC)[ctrlc]Edcc.

          . . . . . . . . . ( end of section LOTOS example) <<Contents | Index>>


        (End of Net LOTOS)


      (Linda): A distributed n-tuple based language by David Gerlernter, the Yale professor, was later the target of a Unabomb attack [ trivia.63c.html ] [click here [socket symbol] if you can fill this hole]


      (Obliq): "Obliq is a lexically-scoped untyped interpreted language that supports distributed object-oriented computation." Luca Cardelli 1994 [ src-rr-122.html ]
      (Visual Obliq): Visual Obliq [ VOHome.html ]


      (Legion): parallel processing, high performance, object-oriented, distributed systems, metasystems, wide area, gigabit networks [ index.html ]


      (O-plan): Open Planning Architecture [ http://www.aiai.ed.ac.uk/~oplan/ ]


      (Mathematica): Pretty pictures of equations! But wait! There is more! [ http://www.wri.com/ ] Wolfram Research.


      (APL): A Programming Language. Hundreds of mathematical/vector/array/etc operations and primitive control structures. Book: K. E. Iverson, A Programming Language, Wiley, 1962

      ACM Special Interest Group: SIGAPL [ http://www.sigmod.org/sigapl/ ] See also J.


      (J): Child of APL. [click here [socket symbol] if you can fill this hole]


      (Erlang): parallel, concurrent, asynchronous message passing, functional, applicative, FP, programming language definition, PLD, [ http://www.cbel.com/erlang_programming_language/ ]


      (Icon): goal oriented, coroutine coexpression generator, SL5, [ http://www.cs.arizona.edu/icon/ ] [ index.html ] Also see ancestor Snobol(Griswold).


      (Oberon): N. Wirth //neptune.inf.ethz.ch/


      (Snobol): Based on Markov algorithms and string processing, and named as a result of the paper snowballs thrown at people when the language was being developed, I hear See child Icon.


      (BCPL): Basic CPL, parent of B, and so gradparent of C etc. A language where all data is 16 bits and that used a dot where C/C++ uses an asterisk. There is a rich set of control structures inherited from CPL. Also multiple assignments! [ clive-on-bcpl.html ]


      (CPL): This ancestor of C used the typographical doubled S section marker to start blocks! The meaning of the acronym was disputed. Powerful control structures and other statements.


      (Gwydion Dylan): languages [ http://www.gwydiondylan.org/ ]
      (Malbolge: Programming from Hell): languages [ index.html ]
      (Universal Networking Language, Hiroshi Uchida): languages [ http://www.unl.ias.unu.edu/ ]

      Functional Languages


      (Functional languages in Software Engineering): languages [ hudak-paul.html ]
      (Mercury is a new logic/functional programming language): languages [ http://www.cs.mu.oz.au/research/mercury/ ]

      More? [click here [socket symbol] if you can fill this hole]

      Graphical Programming


      (Prograph): 2Diconic programming [ PrographFAQ.html ]
      (CUBE): 3 dimensional logic programming by Marc Najork at SRC of DEC, published in Dr. Dobb's Journal of Computer Calisthenics and Orthodonture (Running light with no overbyte:-)
      (TEMPO): My work in progress on Temporal Mapping [ rjb9Xx.TEMPO.html ]

      Analsysis, Modeling and Design


      (LarchC++: Object-oriented specification techniques.): languages [ larchc++.html ]
      (ACL2): languages [ acl2-doc.html ]
      (Model Integration): languages [ http://www.modelint.com/ ]
      (MATHS): My own notation used for these pages [ maths ]
      (SDL site): language [ http://www.sdl-forum.org/ ]
      (UML): Unified Modeling Language. [ UML in methods ] [ uml.html ]
      (2 Years after UML Standard Sinan Si Alhir): languages [ #theumltwoyearsafteradoptionofthestand ]
      (Rational): languages [ index.jtmpl ]
      (UML Dictionary): languages [ UML.htm ]
      (OCL Object constraint language): IBM Application Development [ ocl.html ]
      (Z): Mathematical specification language. Elegant but needs TeX. [ z.syntax.html ] [ Z in methods ]

      Markup Languages


      (HTML): Hypertext Markup Language [ comp.html.glossary.html ] [ comp.html.syntax.html ]
      (SGML): Standardized Generalized Markup Language [ comp.text.SGML.html ]
      (XML): eXtendable Markup Language, [ xml.html ]
      (DocBook): XML languages [ docbook ] [ docbook-intro.html ]
      (Doing It With XML, Part 1 by Ken Sall): languages [ index.html ]
      (OpenMath): XML languages [ http://www.openmath.org/ ]
      (SVG XML based W3C Scalable Vector Graphics ): languages [ http://www.w3.org/Graphics/SVG/ ]
      (a XML): languages [ axml.html ]


      (TeX): For mathematical typography [ comp.text.TeX.html ] [ comp.text.TeX.Mathematical.html ]


      (rtf): RichText Format [ rtf15_spec.htm ] (Version 1.5)


      (PostScript): Actually a page description language developed by Adobe. [ http://www.tjhsst.edu/~edanaher/pslife/ ] (Conway's game of life in PostScript).

      Meta-Languages

      Languages designed to be used for writing and talking about other languages


      (International Standard EBNF Syntax Notation): language [ iso-ebnf.html ]

      Unclassified Languages


      (VRML): Virtual Reality Modeling Language [ vrml.html ]
      (Checks Pattern Language of Information Integrity): languages [ checks.html ]

      Pointers to Other Languages

      If it isn't in this index try searching my whole site [ lookup.php ] my programming language courses [ lookup.php ] [ lookup.php ] or my bibliography [ bib.php ] or the following search engines
      (FAST Search): All the web all the time [ ?_oldhost=alltheweb.com ] and
      (Google search): of Usenet Newsgroups [ http://groups.google.com/ ]

      Glossary

    2. HHOS::="Ho Ho Only Serious", serious thoughts expressed using joke.

    . . . . . . . . . ( end of section My Computer Languages Page) <<Contents | Index>>

    Glossary

  1. BNF::="Backus-Naur Form", for syntax and grammar, developed by Backus and Naur.
  2. EBNF::="Extended " BNF.
  3. HTML::= "HyperText Markup Language", used on the WWW.
  4. HTML_page::syntax= "<HTML>" head body.
  5. Java::="An " OO " Language from Sun".
  6. LISP::= "LISt Processing Language".
  7. LRM::="Language Reference Manual".
  8. OO::="Object-Oriented".
  9. Prolog::="Programming in Logic".
  10. TBA::="To Be Announced".
  11. UML::="Unified Modeling Language".
  12. URL::=Universal_Resource_Locator,
  13. Universal_Resource_Locator::syntax= protocol ":" location, where
    Net
    1. protocol::= "http" | "ftp" | "mailto" | ... ,
    2. location::= O( "//" host) O(pathname).

    (End of Net)
  14. WWW::= See http://www.csci.csusb.edu/dick/cs620/, index to web site for this class.
  15. XBNF::="eXtreme" BNF, developed by the teacher from EBNF, designed to ASCII input of suntax, semantics, and other formal specifications.


Formulae and Definitions in Alphabetical Order