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    Questions and Answer 20 -- Course Review

      Is the real final going to in the same format as the mock final.


      When doing a presentation in the real world how big can the presentation get

      In terms of the size of the audience, I've attended a presentation on an OS upgrade with 60 people in the audience. The typcal presentation to management is to a group of people in a conference room -- no more than 15 people. It depends on the number of stakeholders and decision makers. When calling a meeting you need to select the audience carefully, of course.

      In terms of time: Humans loose focus after 20 minutes unless you change the pace or supply caffeine and sugar. Donuts and coffee help! So does involving the audience.

      The ideal time depends on the type of presentation. Presentations to management should be shorter than presentations of technical ideas to engineers, for example. As a rule, technical people find meetings a waste of their time and so we have things like "stand up meetings" limitted to 15 minutes to share progress and blockages. I'm surprised that no data has apeared on the use of electronic meetings and presentations on software development.

      Whatever: don't prepare a presentation until you know the audience, the place, and (of course) the content!

      What is a deletion anomaly

      A deletion anomaly occurs when the deletion of information about one entity in the data also deletes information about another entity.

      For example if there is a data group

    1. Course( **schedule_number, *course, instructor_name, instructor_office, ...)

      Then deleting the last course that contains a particular instructor also wipes out the data about the instructor.

      The cure is normalization.

      How do you determine which data groups are expanded in 3NF

      The steps are: The Key, The Whole Key, and Nothing but the Key.

      Given 2NF data then each data group will have a prime key and attributes that are determined by the whole of that key.

      Therefor look at data groups that are not in the key in 2NF and that have attributes that act as keys to other attributes. In other words there are non-key functional dependencies.

      For example:

    2. Course( **schedule_number, *course, instructor_name, instructor_office, ...) has an attribute (instructor_name) that determines the value of another one (instructor_office). So you should split this out of Course:
    3. Course( **schedule_number, *course, *instructor_name, ...)
    4. Instructor( **instructor_name, instructor_office, ...)

      Notice that all the attributes in the 2NF Course that depend on instructor_name move out of Course and into the new group Instructor.

      Is Normalization on the final

      There will be questions about normalization -- but I don't have the space, and you don't have the time to normalize any realistic data.

      Can you give an example of an ERD

      I've just had to input some scores from a mock GRE examination. Each student answered 48 questions. Each answer is one of the letters A, B, C, D, or E. There are 2 dozen students. Here is an image of piece of the data

      Data from the Mock GRE

      The facts of interest are like this

    5. Student s answered a to question q.
    6. Student s has a name, ....
    7. Question q has a number, a correct answer, a topic, a text, ...

      Here is a list of entities:

    8. Student, Answer, Question.

      Here are the functional dependencies between entities:

    9. Each Answer is from a single Student, and
    10. Each Answer is to a single Question.

      So, here is the ERD:

      Entities and relations from the mock GRE data

      I hope this helps!

      Can you give an example of the Critical Path Method -- CPM

      Suppose I need to prepare a final examination for a class. I have the following tasks that I must carry out:
      1. Review topics taught-1
      2. Write the questions12
      3. Review and mark up21
      4. Edit31
      5. Generate and publish mock21
      6. Print final41

      (Close Table)

      Next step: draw UML activity diagram [ MakeFinal.png ] , then add durations [ MakeFinal2.png ] , then work out the earliest time transitions (arrows) can happen: [ MakeFinal3.png ] , then work out the latest times transitions can happen [ MakeFinal4.png ] , and finally high-light the critical path: [ MakeFinal5.png ] (Note use right click to pop these images into different windows).


  1. TBA::="To Be Announced".
  2. TBD::="To Be Done".


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    Field Trips [ F1.html ] [ F2.html ] [ F3.html ]

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