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Items in bibliography identified by a string matching DFD

Adler88
.Open Adler88
 Mike Adler
 An Algebra for DFD Process decomposition
 IEEE trans on Soft Eng vSE-14n2(Feb 1988)pp169-183
 =MATH ALGEBRA IO MATRICES DESIGN DFD TECHNICAL
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AthanasSilverman93
.Open AthanasSilverman93
 Peter M Athanas & Harvey F Silverman
 Processor Reconfiguration Through Instruction-Set Metamorphosis
 IEEE Computer Magazine V26n3(Mar 1993)pp11-20
 =DEMO DFDs HARDWARE
 DFDs on pages 15-16 are called DFGs
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Bailin89
.Open Bailin89
 SC Bailin
 An Object-Oriented Requirements Specification Method
 Commun ACM v32n5(May 1989)pp608-623
.See http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/63485.63491
 =IDEA OBJECTS ERD DFD Reality PURPOSE TECHNICAL SRS
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BaldwinChung95
.Open BaldwinChung95
 Reid A Baldwin & Moon Jung Chung
 A Formal Approach to Managing Design Processes
 IEEE Coputer Magazine V28n2(Feb 1995)pp54-63
 Process Flow Graph.... DFD like but with alternate refinements.
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BanslerBoedker93
.Open BanslerBoedker93
 Jorgen P Bansler & Keld Boedker
 A Reappraisal of Structured analysis: design in an organisational context
 ACM Trans Inf Syst  V11n2(Apr 93)pp165-193, CR9402-0096
 =POLL THEORY VS PRACTICE SA/SD Yourdon DeMarco DFD
 SA treats people as machines and so ignores errors creativity
politics, assumes all problems have been stated, rational designer, separation of
function from implementation
 small survey interviewing successful SA/SD.
 people use tools not the rules. DFDs and ERDs. prototypes, screen layout
 Abstract:
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"This study reveals that while some of the tools of Structured Analysis - notably data flow diagrams - are used and combined with other tools, the designers do not follow the analysis and design procedures prescribed by the method"
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GrafLormansToetenel03
.Open GrafLormansToetenel03
 Bas Graf & Marco Lormans & Hans Toetenel
 Embedded Software Engineering: The State of the Practice
 IEEE Software Magazine V20n6(Nov/Dec 2003)pp61-69
 =POLL 36  INTERVIEWS EMBEDDED REQUIREMENTS ARCHITECTURE MOOSE ITEA UML
 Hardware driven, top-down: system drives subsystem drives component. At each stage the previous architecture becomes a requirement in the next level.
 Stakeholders ={manufacturing, maintenance, marketing(users/consumers)}.
 Context = { Suppliers, standards, legacies, regulators }
 Requirements expressed in text using word processors and templates. Informal diagrams.  Use cases from the UML. Some sequence diagrams and domain models.  Pre/post conditions in programming.  Only one formal specification(in Z).
 Managing changing requirements: spreadsheets.
 Architecture: vs time-to-market. Creative.
 Performance: design for maximum speed possible, hope, and test.  UML popular with Visio and Rose.  DFDs. ERDs. HatleyPirbhai.
 Reuse: Ad hoc.
 Memory, power and real time less prominent than expected.
 Modern methods/technologies: vs legacy systems, are too immature and complex,
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Bergland81
.Open Bergland81
 Glenn D Bergland
 A Guided Tour of Program Design Methodologies
 IEEE Computer v14(Oct 1981)pp13-37 (reprint in Chow(Ed)84)
 =survey Compares FD JSP DFD and Dijkstra Gries
 Page 241 of Chou
 Figs 43 and 44: Where is the Magic in the methods?
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BerglandZave86
.Open BerglandZave86
 Glen D Bergland & Pamela Zave
 Special Issue on Software Design Methods
 IEEE Trans on Software Engineering SE-12n 2 (Feb 1986)
 =survey object-oriented DAD JSD functional formal ADTs DFD
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BerzinsLuqiYehudai93
.Open BerzinsLuqiYehudai93
 Valdis Berzins & Luqi[Sic] & Amiram Yehudai
 Using Transformations in Specification-Based Prototyping
 IEEE Trans on Software Eng VSE-19n5(May 1993)pp436-452 QUALITY PURPOSE function
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 Transformations of specifications during a project.
 Spec+DFDs
 pp442-443 Software Process
 p446 encapsulated user interface in module
 pp446-447 requirements evolve
 distinguish spec changes from design and implementation changes
 p447inheriting from older specifications
 p450 Distinguishing (and delaying) optimization decisions from functional requirements.

pp458-459 distinguishing extention, contraction, refining, abstracting, relaxing, constraining by comparing Vocabulary, Granularity and Behavior.

pp447-448: The derivation Lattice/poset to explain designs -- configuration management for specs?
 
.See [Snelting96]
.See [KramerLuqiBerzins93]
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Berztiss89
.Open Berztiss89
 Alfs Berztiss
 Formal Specification Methods and Visualisations
 In
.See [Chang89]
pp231-290
 =SURVEY graphic DFDS ERDs(problems) JSD STD Petrie Nets Structure Diagrams
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Blum94
.Open Blum94
 Bruce I Blum
 A Taxonomy of Software Development Methods
 Commun ACM V37n11(Nov 1994)pp82-94 CR9602-0143
 history(pp84-90) methods
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Design methods include analysis...code.
All based on ideas started in 1968-1977.
No clear dividing lines between successive activities
shift from life cycle to process
Destinguishes: descriptive models("conceptual")(give guidance) from prescriptive models("formal")(establish criteria).
and: problem oriented(focus on understanding the problem/solution) from product oriented(correct transformation from a prescription to a maintainable implementation).
Four categories.
problem oriented prescriptive models have potential
automatic support for product oriented formal
problem oriented tend to be descriptive and prescriptive tend to be product oriented.

Mentions levels of abstraction, virtual machines, SWR, functional decomposition, structured design, coupling, cohesion, structure chart, information hiding, structured programming, proofs of correctness, algebraic specification, ADTs, structured analyisi, DFDs PSL/PSA, ERM(ERD), STD. petrie nets, warnier LCS (not LCP), JSP, JSD, VDM (not Z), OOP, OOA, Modern structured analysis, no silver bullets.
?? mathematical means top-down?
isomorphism between problem and solution
tension in development between need for subjective designs and formal programs.... top-down vs outside in, data flow vs data structure.
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Botting85b
.Open Botting85b
 RJ Botting
 An Eclectic Approach to Software Engineering
 pp25-29 Proc Third Int'l Workshop on Software Specification & Design(IWSSD3) Aug 1985
 =survey PQRST PURPOSES QUALITIES REALITIES SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES DFD PROTOTYPES NOTATIONS
 Names 28 processes available to a software developer and describes how
they are connected.  The processes are found in 31 different references.
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Botting87a
.Open Botting87a
 RJ Botting
 A Critique of Pure Functionalism
 pp148-153 Proc. Fourth Int'l Workshop on Software Specification & Design(IWSSD4) April 1987 IEEE Catalog No. TH0181-8 LA CA
 =DEMO formal DAD DFD ERD DDD data lift
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Botting06
.Open Botting06
 Richard J Botting 
 Use Case Diagrams
 IEEE Computer Magazine  V39n8(Sep 2006)pp5 
.See http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2006.317
 =LETTER DFD USE CASES UML2.0 information flows
 See
.See [DedekeLieberman06]
for an non-standard way to document use case data flows. 
 Refers to 
.See [Botting05b]
and
.See http://www/dick/papers/rjb04bDFDs/
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BriandMorascaBasili02
.Open BriandMorascaBasili02
 Lionel Briand & Sandro Morasca & Victor R Basili
 An Operational process for goal-driven definition of Measures
 IEEE Trans Software Engineering  V28n12(Dec 2003)pp1106-1125
 =EXPERIENCE GQM/MEDEA METRIC DEFINITION QUALITIES DFDs UML TRIO+
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Broy01
.Open Broy01
 Manfred Broy
 Toward a Mathematical Foundation of software engineering Methods
 IEEE Trans Software Engineering  V27n11(Jan 2001)pp42-57 CR0102-0065
 =THEORY METHODS ALGEBRA DIGRAPH FSM/STD DFDs ADT ERD SEQUENCE DATA
 Not object oriented.
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Burnsten07
.Open Burnsten07
 Sidney L Burnsten 
 To map a process, first find its swimlane
 Commun ACM V50n10(Oct 2007)p14
 =ANECDOTE IBM SLB GRAPHIC ANALYSIS DESIGN METHOD DesignFlow
  SLB::="Swim Lane Based".   
 Draw both "as is" and "to be" diagrams.
 Involve users and stakeholders.
 Each actor has a swimlane. Show activities & decisions in lanes. include information.
 Claims many years of successful use.
 Claims better than DFDs or Usecases. 
 Sounds like it is compatible with UML2.0 Activity diagrams.
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Chikofsky(ed)88
.Open Chikofsky(ed)88
 Various authors
 Special Issue on the emergence of CASE
 IEEE Software v5n2(Mar 1988)
 =MAGAZINE tools graphic DFD ERD Technical
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Coad90
.Open Coad90
 Peter Coad
 Object Oriented Analysis
 Object Int & Ed Yourdon Press Prentice Hall NJ
 =HANDBOOK object-oriented SAD DFD ERD STD
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Constantine94
.Open Constantine94
 Larry Constantine
 Essentially Speaking
 Software Development V2n1(Nov 1994)pp96+95
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 p96 "Data Flow diagrams were intended as a nonprocedural model o computation, separating the essence of `what` the computer was to do from `how` it was to be accomplished through any particular algorithm or procedure[...] In practice, designers often turned DFDs into flowcharts with funny figures, a corruption encouraged by enhancements taht implicitly invited procedural thinking."
ref to McMenaminPalmer86, Stephen P McMenamin & John Palmer, Essential Systems Analysis, Yourdon Press 1986
 p95 Essential use-case modeling: S-T
 p95"If we don't design to the ideal, we can't see where technology or technical assumptions are limiting us, and we may miss completely the opportunity for alternative approaches."
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CoomberChilds90
.Open CoomberChilds90
 CJ Coomber & RE Childs
 A Graphical Tool for the Prototyping of Real-Time Systems
 ACM SIGSOFT SEN V15n2(Apr 1990)pp70-82 DFDs prototyping STDs
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Cutts88
.Open Cutts88
 Geof Cutts
 Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology
 Van Nostrand Reinhold NY NY 1988
 =TEXT SAD  ERD(cow format) DFD  DAD(using std not ELH) SSADM PQRST
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DavisA90
.Open DavisA90
 Alan M. Davis
 Software Requirements: Analysis and Specification
 Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs NJ 1990 ISBN 0-13-824673-4 BNB89-16392 QA76.76 D47 D38 1990
 =TEXT SADT DFD DATA Coad bibliography
 Reviews:  IEEE Software magazine v11n2(Mar 1994) CR9112-0915. 
 Revised as DavisA93a
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DavisA93a
.Open DavisA93a
 Alan M Davis
 Software requirements: objects & functions and states
 Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs NJ 1993
 =TEXT SADT DFD DATA Coad bibliography
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Revision of DavisA90 CR9112-0915
Best broad coverage
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DeanCordy95
.Open DeanCordy95
 Thomas R Dean & James R Cordy
 A Syntactic Theory of Software Architecture
 IEEE Trans on Software Eng VSE-21n4(Apr 1995)pp301-314 CR9602-0119 D.2.0
 =THEORY ARCHITECTURE DFDs GRAMMAR
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DedekeLiberman06
.Open DedekeLiberman06
 Adenekan (Nick) Dedeke & Benjamin Liberman 
 Qualifying Use Case Diagram Associations 
 IEEE Computer Magazine V39n6(Jun 2006)pp23-29 
 =DEMO UML USE CASE DOMAIN MODEL DATA FLOWS DFDs   
 Analyzing data needed for a use case and linking it to a conceptual domain model leads to better use cases.
 Extension to UML2.0 use case diagrams. 
 (dick)|- why not use a DFD?
.See ./papers/rjb04bDFDs/
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DeGraceStahl90
.Open DeGraceStahl90
 Peter DeGrace & Leslie H Stahl
 Wicked Problems and Righteous Solutions: A Catalogue of Modern Software Engineering Paradigms
 Yourdon Press NY NY 1990 QA76.758.D44 1990 CR9208-0538
 =POLEMIC METHODS vs PROBLEMS
 many DFDs of methods.
 wicked_problem::=`The solution is part of the problem & no stopping rules & not true/false`. [rittel & webber 73: dilemmas in a genl theory o planning policy sciences v4pp155-169].
 handcuffs and hacking.
 (dick)|- possible confusions: COBOL=DP. top-down=waterfall.
.See [Cardetal87]
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DeMarco79
.Open DeMarco79
 Tom De Marco
 Structured Analysis & Systems Specification
 Prentice Hall 1979
 =TEXT SAD DFD PURPOSE System
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DeMarco80
.Open DeMarco80
 Tom De Marco
 Structured Analysis & System Specification
 Yourdon Press NY NY
 =HANDBOOK SAD DFD ERD PURPOSE System Reality
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Dutton93
.Open Dutton93
 James E. Dutton<dutton@parcplace.com>
 Commonsense Approach to Process Modeling
 IEEE Software Magazine(July 1993)pp56-64
 =IDEA PROCESS MODELING DFDs
 ProSLCES VPML::= DFDs+StructuredText
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p61. ref to Osterweil87

p61. " dataflow[...]seems to be a natural way for people to think about [processes].  After surveying several process-definition efforts, we found that almost all of them used some sort of dataflow notation as a first approximation -- and sometimes as final documentation".
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EllisJ94
.Open EllisJ94
 John R Ellis
 Objectifying Real-Time Systems
 SIGS Publications NY 1994 $44
 review IEEE Software magazine V13n3(Mar 1996)p123: down to earth and based on WardMellor RTSA with DFDs ERDs etc
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Fayadetal93
.Open Fayadetal93
 Mohamed E Fayad & Louis J Hawn & Mark A Roberts & Jerry R Klatt (Macdonnel Douglas Corp)
 Using the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented Analysis Method
 IEEE Software Magazine V10n2 (Mar 1993)pp43-52 + Correspondence V10n5(Sep 1993)pp6-7
 OBJECT-ORIENTED METHOD OOA review
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 p43. consistently produced better abstract objects than other OOMethods
 p44. Best applied to information systems or to re-engineering; when the data objects are defined.

**disputed in correspondence**
Colberts ws succssful, but SAD not defined map from analysis to design, or use of Ada Packages.  S-M: 2 months for ERA, rules:uniformit, more than name, no Ors, more than a list.  Tangibles|roles|incidents|interactions|specifications
 p47 CASE tool:=Teamwork
 pp48-49 ->> Object selection(ERA) is sound TNF rules
Get a complete information model first, Need more than names and few lowlevel object classes defined.
Good in the RT area
States -> the wicked problem (Ramamoorthy).  Weak in the PQ and S area.
 p50. Data and process analysis linked, can express constraints, but DFDs become cluttered needed a data and process dictionary.  State models can list duplicate processes.  Need more views of objects.  Semantics difficult: Just choosing descriptive words.
 p51 Interaction insufficiently documented. DFD not much help (*disputed*)with update/retrieval but resulting processes are cohesive.
TWO MONTHS.
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France92
.Open France92
 Robert B France
 Semantically Extended Data Flow Diagrams: A Formal Specification Tool
 IEEE Trans SE-18n4(Apr 1992)pp329-346 DFD CR9308-0580(D.2.1)
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Fraseretal91
.Open Fraseretal91
 Martin D Fraser & Kuldeep Kumar & Vijay K Vaishnavi
 Informal and Formal Requirements Specification Languages: Bridging the Gap
 IEEE Trans SE-V17n5(May 1991)pp454-466
 synergy
 acceptance VDM+DFD&SA need to relate discrete flows to VDM variables
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FreemanL03
.Open FreemanL03
 Lee A. Freeman 
 A refresher in data flow diagramming: an effective aid for analysts
 Communications of the ACM  V46n9 (Sep 2003) pp147-151: Virtual extension
 Full text	Pdf (171JKB) Retrieved Sep 3rd 2003 from 
.See http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/903893.903932
 =EXPERIMENT REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS DFDs
 Review $CR 0405-0558
 Reminding novice analysts about the rules of DFDs increased  simulated client's  satisfaction and the accuracy (as judged by experts) of the DFDs produced 
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GaneSarson77
.Open GaneSarson77
 Chris Gane & Trish Sarson
 Structured Systems Analysis
 IST 1977
 =HANDBOOK SAD DFD PURPOSE System
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GaneSarson79
.Open GaneSarson79
 Chris Gane & Trish Sarson
 Structured Systems Analysis: Tools & Techniques
 Englewood Cliffs NJ Prentice Hall 1979
 =HANDBOOK SAD DFD PURPOSE System
 IRACIS::acronym="Increase Revenue, Avoid Costs, Improve Service". 
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GelbardTeeniSadeh09
.Open GelbardTeeniSadeh09
 Roy Gelbard & Dov Te'eni & Matti Sadeh
 Object-oriented Analysis -- is it just a theory
 IEEE Software Magazine V27n1(Jan/Feb 2010)p64-71
 =POLL 54 PROJECTS UML  DFDs flowcharts OOA ANALYSIS DESIGN CODE
 Most classes are identified during design & code.
 diagram types: (most used) class(ERD), package, activity, flow, sequence, state, collaboration, DFD, use case(least used). Component& deployment not used.
 Text always used, mostly with diagram.  Diagrams are not enough.  
 80% used one iteration. 
 Clients do not get oo diagrams. 
 CASE tools don't speed up understanding and explaining. 
 Missing: user interface, business process, ... OO models.
 Suggest that less is more.   
 Notes use of OOA depends on  policy, costs, and benefits. 
 Minimize Costs: focus on organisational relationships, interactions, data items, and user experiences. 
 Maximize Benefits: use psychology and sociology to analyse needs.  
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Gelernter91
.Open Gelernter91
 David Gelernter
 Mirror Worlds: or the day software puts the universe in a shoebox...how it will happen and what it will mean
 Oxford U Press Oxford UK & NY NY 1991 CR9306-0374 QA76.754 G45  ISBN 0-19-506812-2 BNB 91-19178 Dewey 005
 =IDEA REALITY NET
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Linda. "ensembles"=systems. p54: recursive simplicity, clarity, espalier.
p114:"Software architecture is no medium for untrammeled whimsy.  It imposes ironclad discipline on the designer: The point is to solve a hard problem efficiently, not to make art.  But good designers in any medium make art despite themselves;  whether they work in steel or concrete or software or silicon, that's precisely how you recognize them."

p121: "We don't need to tell people "the program can perform the following twenty-three thousand kinds of analysis.: We can show them a picture whose structure mirrord their own concept of the problem, their own mental picture: a low level, a high level, a high level.  The lines on the picture show you what depends on what.  Again, they mirror your thinking:"

espalier fixing an ensemble to an architecture.
architectureS.
Trellis- DAG DFD - predictable timing

Probes attached to data streams(p124)

p155: plunge: collect similar cases from memory pool
p159: Induction
squish set of cases together into exemplar
Replunge...
CR(A A Mullin) "Here is computer science imitating art imitating computer science. [...]So-called mirrorworlds will be the Great Pyramids of tomorrow: enduring monuments of technology and art.[...]expresses numerour opinions, some of which he defends[...] it resembles the non-visual presentation style found in the Kabbalah. Each of the authors 20 figures approaches surrealist art[...]attempts to explicate object -oriented programming[...]
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GilDeelmanEtAl07
.Open GilDeelmanEtAl07
 Yolanda Gil & Ewa Deelman & Marc Ellisman & Thomas Fahringer & Geoffrey Fox & Dennis Gannon & Carole Goble & Miron Livny & Luc Moreau & Jim Myers 
 Examining the challenges of Scientific Workflows
 IEEE Computer Magazine V40n12(Dec 2007)pp24-32 
 =REPORT CONFERENCE NSF DATA PROCESS DFD MODELS SCIENCE 
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Gomaa85
.Open Gomaa85
 Hassan Gomaa(hgomaa@isse.gmu.edu)
 Software development of real-time systems
 Commun ACM V29n7(Jul 1986)pp657-668
 DFD+queuesetc STD/FSM incremental development prototypes+event sequence diagrams
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Hall96a
.Open Hall96a
 Anthony Hall(Praxis mailto:jav@praxis.co.uk)
 Using Formal Methods to develop an ATC Information System
 IEEE Software magazine V13n3(Mar 1996)pp66-76 reprint in 
.See [HincheyBowen99]
pp207-229
 1989-1993 Air Traffic Control GUI display information system(CDIS) for the London Area 197KLOC(C) 15.5Kperson-days 13LOC/day 11 faults/LOC into testing 150 faults after delivery(0.75faults/KLOC)
 =EXPERIENCE FORMAL ER DFD VDM VVSL CSP FSM CCS
 HCI spec was weakest + needed more informal explanation diagrams etc + problem in gettting an overview
.See [Barlas96]
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Hansen94
.Open Hansen94
 Gregory A Hansen
 Tools for Business-Process Reengineering
 IEEE Software Magazine V11n5(Sep 1994)pp131-133
 =ADVERT DFD SIMULATION TOOL
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HatleyPirbhai87
.Open HatleyPirbhai87
 Derek J Hatley & Imtiaz A Pirbhai
 Strategies for Real-Time Specification
 Dorset House Publishing 1987
 =METHOD Hibrid DFD/CFDs + STDs
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continuous and discontinuous flows and processes
activation deactivation
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Herbertetal90
.Open Herbertetal90
 Andrew Herbert & William Lively & Sallie Sheppard
 A Graphical Specification System for User-Interface Design
 IEEE Software V7n4 (Jul 1990) p12-20
 =IDEA graphic DFD STD USER
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Honidenetal93
.Open Honidenetal93
 Shinichi Honiden & Nobuto Kotaka & Yoshinori Kishimoto
 Formalizing Specification Modeling in OOA
 Special Theme "Making OO Work" IEEE Software V10n1(Jan 1993)pp54-66
 =ADVERT OBJECT-ORIENTED PROCESS NONSEQUENTIAL
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 software process analyzed as DFDs with backtracking; then into 
substep::=Net{triggers, inputs, outputs, activities}
 p62 "In essence, the 
object-oriented specification process is not sequential.  Each step should
be executed side by side.",
 p63 "Our model does not take into account the 
know-how held by domain experts.  This is a problem of how to extract 
information from a speciifcation written in a natural language."
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HughesPowell81
.Open HughesPowell81
 Janet Hughes & ?? Powell
 Program Design
 pp 63-73 of Proc. of Workshop on Program Specification & Design (Aug 1981) Ed Staunstrup Springer Verlag 1981
 =DEMO DESIGN formal non-sequential DFD DDD
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HungerfordHevnerCollins04
.Open HungerfordHevnerCollins04
 Bruce C Hungerford & Alan R Hevner & Rosann W Collins
 Reviewing Software Diagrams: A Case Study
 IEEE Trans Software Engineering  V30n2(Feb 2004)pp82-96
 =EXPERIMENT V&V SQA INSPECTION DFD ERD
 Most defects found by experienced developers who rapidly switch between DFDs and ERDs.
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Jackson94
.Open Jackson94
 Michael A Jackson
 Problems & Methods and Specializations
 IEEE Software Magazine V11n6(Nov 1994)pp57-62(advert  p93)
 See IEEE Software Engineering Journal 1994
 =ESSAY PROBLEMS vs SOLUTIONS Engineering JSD Refs to Polya Parnas ADTs
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Note. original cited in GlassVessey95, overlaps Jackson95c
p57: "Software engineering is hard", "lack of proffessionalism",
  "There are no casual builders of cars or bridges", "Many theorists and practitioners, even the most proffessional are naive."
p58: "The prerequisites for a more mathematical approach are not yet in place...an automotive engineer [...]a repetoire of standard designs[...]the design space is very narrow."
"Understanding the problem and structuring the solution is the primary need"[...]"general computational paradigms[DFDs, objects,...] gives a design space that is too wide for comfort."

architectural styles, types of problem.  focussing on the problem and not the technique.
refers to Polya...
Problems in context, understand problem::=mapped into set of frames, solutions within and to frames, recombined solutions.

Need for specialisms within engineering.

Three frames:
 JSD, Workpiece->ADT, Controlled environment
  JSD::=Net{Real_World, Information_outputs, Requests, System, Function}
  Workpiece::=Net{Workpieces, Operation requests, Operations, machine}
  Environmane-Effect::=Net{Environment, Connection, Machine, Requirement}

->>Engineering disciplines should  not focus on a material so much as a network of connected sets of problems and solutions: Personal transport<net>automobiles.  MassTransit<net>railway engines.

See also session at ICSE95
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Jackson95c
.Open Jackson95c
 Michael Jackson(MAJ Consulting Ltd.  London) <jackson@acm.org>
 Requirements & Specifications: a Lexicon of Software Practice Principles and Prejudice
 Addison-Wesley Redwood City CA 1995 ISBN 0-201-87712-0 CR9607-0459 D.2.1
 Excerpt IEEE Software Magazine V12n6(Nov 1995)pp103-104 and
.See [Jackson94]
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 No one method.
 Context diagrams/problem frames reality driven.
 Predicates for precision, composition by "and".
 Designations, definitions, assumptions.
 Moods: indicative(NAT) vs optative(REQ).
 Shared phenomena connect domains.
 Individuals.
 Danger of vagueness (especially at top level)
 Describes some risks+limits of: JSP, Z, DFDs, ERDs, top-down, hierarchies, solutions not problems.
 Ref to Phillip Kraft: "Deskilling".
 Examples: Dekker, elevators, kohnigsberg, packages, ...
 Aboricide
 Importance of critical reading
 Sent  EMail July 23rd 1996
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JacksonK89
.Open JacksonK89
 Ken Jackson
 Providing for the Missing Steps
 UNIX Review v6n11(Nov 1988) pp55-63
 SAD DFD DDD DAD Mascot
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Jankowski94
.Open Jankowski94
 David J Jankowski
 The Feasibility of CASE Structured Analysis Methodology Support
 ACM SIGSOFT Software Eng Notes V19n2(Apr 1994)pp72-82
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Lists 28 rules for correct drawing correct DFDs according to SA.

Lists 7 kinds of support for a rule:
.List
 None,
 During creation: Automatically ( Mandated,  Over-ridable, On Request),
 During Exit/Save Automatically ( Mandated, Over-ridable),
 Post Method - On Request.
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JeyarajSauter07
.Open JeyarajSauter07
 Anand Jeyaraj & Vicki L Sauter 
 An Empirical Investigation of the Effectiveness of Systems Modeling and Verification Tools
 Commun ACM V50n6(Jun 2007)pp63-67 +   Correspondence Commun ACM V50n8(Aug 2007)p13-14
 =EXPERIMENT DFD vs UCD USE CASE DATA FLOW GRAPHICS REQUIREMENTS MODEL  
 Compared the ability of people (novice and experienced) to extract a correct and complete narrative from either a DFD or a use case diagram.
 DFDs better at exposing information about the system.
 Before asking non-experts (clients, users, stake holders) to review requirements diagrams provide training.
 Replicates
.See [FreemanL03]
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KayReed93
.Open KayReed93
 Andrew Kay & Joy N Reed
 A Rely and Guarantee Method for Timed CSP: A Specification and Design of a Telephone Exchange
 IEEE Trans SE-V19n6(Jun 1993)pp625-639
 =THEORY MODULES NONSEQUENTIAL SAFETY LIVENESS PROOF PERFORMANCE
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p631: "The correctness proofs for the design require that the time for internal signal be very small compared to times between externally generated signals."
need expertise to recognise and handle race conditions

p629: Rely/garantee works without extra conditions as long as: (1)No safety constraints on inputs and (2) every component polls its all its inputs

p638: "Our main objective was to prove that desirable things happen within a given time"

p635: "...proofs often revealed faults in our proposed design"
Uses DFD-like diagrams

p630:"The first version of the specification, as is inevitable in any non-trivial application, did undergo a certain amount of change during the design phase"

p625: "Masses of useless formal scribblings" avoided by "CSP specification style of giving predicates over sets of traces of the system (and its components) can result in more abstract specifications than those in a state/transition style, and hence are less detailed"
"Components do not have behave correctly in every invironment, but if each component satisfies its individual specification the behavior of the composite system is not compromised" ..."The rely and guarantee parts of the specification are collected to form interface specifications, making for a high level of organisation with the minimum of effort".

Has ref to Cliff Jones D. Phil thesis Oxon Jun 1981
Should have ref to 
.See [Lamport90b]
perhaps.
TCSP::=Timed CSP
traces with refusal sets - research/1 notes/kay&reed/...
prevents, causes,

rely and guarantee

P O T S: Spec with 24 rely/guarantee pairs
.Close.Box
.Close

KramerLuqiBerzins93
.Open KramerLuqiBerzins93
 Bernd Kramer & Luqi &  Valdis Berzins
 Compositional Semantics of a Real-Time Prototyping Language
 IEEE Trans SE-V19n5(May 1993)pp453-477
 =THEORY PSDL Specifications DFDs Petrie Nets Algebraic
.Close

Kung89
.Open Kung89
 C H Kung
 Conceptual Modeling in the Context of Software Development
 IEEE Trans Soft Eng vSE-15 n10(Oct 1989)pp1176-1187
 =DEMO data ERD DFDs logic Petrie nets System
.Close

KuoKarimi88
.Open KuoKarimi88
 F-Y Kuo & J Karimi
 User Interface Design from a Real Time Perspective
 Commun ACM V31n12(Dec 1988)pp1456-1466
 =DEMO DFD STD USER
.Close

LammaMelloRiguzzi04
.Open LammaMelloRiguzzi04
 Evelina Lamma & Paola Mello & Fabrizio Riguzzi
 A System for Measuring Function Points from an ER-DFD Specification
 Computer Journal V47n3( 2004)pp358-372
 =CASESTUDY METRIC COST EFFORT DFD ERD ILF ER-DFD
 ER-DFD::="Shows entities and relations plus the processes that effect them, and the external entities (actors) involved".
.Close

LanoBreuer90
.Open LanoBreuer90
 K Lano &  P T Breuer
 From Programs to Z Specifications
 pp46-70 in Nicholls90
 =THEORY REVERSE ENGINEER CODE Z
.Box
reverse engineering, prime operator, monads, anti-weakest precondition, relational composition, fixed point theory, normal form, all programs reducible to Z specification, UNIFORM, DFD loop semantics
.Close.Box
.Close

Lausen88
.Open Lausen88
 Georg Lausen
 Modeling and Analysis of the Behavior of Information systems
 IEEE Trans Soft Eng VSE-14n11(Nov 1988)pp1610-1620
 =theory =demo dfds and petri-nets
.Close

LejkDeeks02
.Open LejkDeeks02
 Mark Lejk & David Deeks
 An Introduction to Systems Analysis Techniques (2nd edn.)
 Addison Wesley USA & Pearson Edn Ltd Harlow Essex UK 2002 ISBN 0-201-79713-5
 =TEXTBOOK SSADM  Object-Oriented  REALITY SYSTEM PURPOSE DFD SPECIFICATION ELHs PISO CRC Decision TABLES Management
 PISO::="Process Improvement for Strategic Objectives".
.Close

LiuOffuttEtal98
.Open LiuOffuttEtal98
 Shaoying Liu & A Jeff Offut & Chris Ho-Stuart & Yong Sun & Mitsuru Ohba
 SOFL: A Formal Engineering Methodology for Industrial Application
 IEEE Trans Soft Eng V24n1(Jan 1998)pp24-45
 =DEMO PROCESS LANGUAGE INSPECTIONs
 SOFL::="Structure Object-based Formal Language".
 CDFD::="condition data flow diagram".
 dynamic development
.Close

LocascioDarpel93
.Open LocascioDarpel93
 Capt Charles J Locascio & 2Lt Mathew M darpel
 Software Reengineering for the Future with Ada
 IEEE Computer Society Reverse Engineering Newsletter n5&6(Dec 1993)pp4-5
 =EXPERIENCE LEGACY COBOL JCL RENGINEERING Ada DFD REQUIREMENTS
.Box
Replacing13 year-old undocumented suite of COBOL programs and JCL
Into Ada
Analysis of JCL+COBOL, JCL->physical DFD->Logical DFD = 4 diagrams!
cf results with Requirements-> missing, extra, obsolete
preliminary oo design: real world objects
  Prelimnary Object Encyclopedia"
 OOD
 Advanced CASE Technology
 Design Based Maintenance(DBM) : Design+Code is one thing.
 Teamwork DSE(Design sensitive Editor)
 Ada Structure Graphs(ASGs)
 reuse: Booch components, 100s of generic packages, domain library

Ada Helped.
.Close.Box
.Close

LoyStapp93
.Open LoyStapp93
 Patrick Loy & Yvonne Stapp
 DFD's vs. N^2 charts
 ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes V18n3(Jul 1993)ppA16-17
 =DEMO DFD GRAPHIC n-SQUARED
.Close

Maddisonetal83
.Open Maddisonetal83
 ?? Maddison ...
 Information Systems Methodologies
 UK Wiley Hayden
 =survey SAD SSADM DFD ERD PQRST
.Close

Maiden08a
.Open Maiden08a
 Neil Maiden 
 Requirements 25 years on 
 IEEE Software Magazine V25n6(Nov/Dec 2008)pp26-28
 =HISTORY 1983-2008 REQUIREMENTS 
 14 references
 1970s: Requirements were monolithic and used natural language with "noise, silence, contradiction, ambiguity, and wishful thinking".  VDM
.See [Bekic70]
and JSP
.See [Jackson75]
 available but not used. Pencil and Paper 
 1977: Ross
.See [Ross77]
developed SADT notation (IDEF) and method
.See [Ross85] and story telling.
 1978: 
.See [Jackson78]
System maintains a model of reality.  Leads to JSD in the 1980s 
 1979: DeMarco
.See [DeMarco79]
, Gane&Sarson
.See [GaneSarson79]
, Yourdon
.See [Yourdon75]
& Constantine. DFDs. Logical vs Physical. STDs. Functional decomposition. Informal diagrams.
structured analysis and design.  First CASE tools help draw informal graphics.
 1980s: Greenspan. 
.See [BorgidaGreenspanMylopoulos85]
.See [BorgidaGreenspanMylopoulos94]
Semantic networks, logic, frames model knowledge about situation. RML: the model is collection of objects of different types. Ontology: entities, activities, assertions.  Leads to TROPOS, i*, KAOS (Knowledge Acquisition in Automated Specification).  Goals and Constraints.
Expert systems. 
 1980s: Stakeholders have difficulties articulating requirements. So, repertory grids, card sorting, Laddering.
.See [Maiden09]
 1990s: Ethnography, HCI. Complexity of the working environment. 
 1998: Beyer & Holtzblatt
.See [BeyerHoltzblatt94]
.See [BeyerHoltzblatt95]
: Contextual enquiry. 
 1999: Vicente: Cognitive work Analysis
 2004: 
.See [MaidenGizikisRobertson04]
: Inventing requirements.
 Today: better at identifying stakeholders, use cases and scenarios, quality requirements, reasoning about natural language, multiply viewpoints, detecting and handling conflicts, social techniques, Tracing requirements, tailoring to different domains, training analysts.
 Meanwhile: We are tackling larger and more complex systems.
 Also see
.See [Maiden05]
on requirements research.
.Close

Martin85
.Open Martin85
 James Martin
 System Design from Provably Correct Constructs
 Prentice-Hall Int(USA) 1985 QA76.9S88M37 1984, Dewey 001.64 ISBN  0-13-881483-X
 =ADVERT HOS DATA Algebraic Specifications of AXES FORMAL METHODS FD
.Net Content:
	data engineering ch10..14 +App iv,
	HOS chapters 3..9,
	WHY (ch00) Software Misengineering ch1,
	HOS->DFDs ch15 (not vv),
	New life cycles ch18,
	Theory appendices I, II,
	Intrinsic data types Appendices III,
	TNF 3NF Third Normal Form Appendix IV,
.Close.Net
.Box
 Claims these methods 10 times more productive p124 than informal structured methods.
 Shows typical DFD and how it turns into two programs.
 p265 " The shortcomings of DFDs as typically drawn[...]As a method of
analysis they leave much to be desired.  They help conceptualize entangled
data flows of data between operations, but unless coupled to a more
rigorous forms of analysis, they are often misleading or wrong.  They are
no substitute for formal data analysis and rigorous functional
decomposition."
  "Structured Analysis" as commonly practices gives
inadequate front-end design(although it is better than unstructured text
specifications), and consequently the programs created with it have many
errors of specification which are expensive to corrrect"
 (but no evidence given of claims)
.Close.Box
.Close

MartinMcClure85
.Open MartinMcClure85
 James Martin & Carma McClure
 Diagrammatic Techniques for Analysts & Programmers
 Prentice Hall Intl  NJ 1985
 =survey graphic DFD ERD STD DDD sequential
.Close

Mastro85
.Open Mastro85
 ?? Mastros
 Three Dimensional Design
 ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes v10n5(Oct 1985)
 =IDEA SAD DFD ERD sequential PURPOSE System Reality
.Close

MillsGomma00
.Open MillsGomma00
 Kevin L Mills & Hassan Gomma
 A Knowledge-Based Method for Inferring semantic concepts from Visual Models of System Behavior
 ACM TOSEM Trans Software Engineering & Methodology V9n3(Jul 2000)pp306-337
 =DEMO TOOL CODA DFD (COBRA ) to NONSEQUENTIAL ARCHITECTURE CLIPS SEMANTICS GAPHICS INFERENCE
 Uses meta-model  and inference to dd semantic tags and derive design.  does 80% automatically
.Close

Moody09
.Open Moody09
  Daniel L Moody
  The "Physics" of Notations: Towards a scientific basis for constructing visual notations in Software Engineering
  IEEE Trans Software Engineering V35n6(Nov/Dec 2009)pp756-779
  =THEORY GRAPHICS DIAGRAMS EXAMPLES DFD UML ERD PEOPLE PSYCHOLOGY
  Presents an exhaustive model of the possibilities for a diagram and 
there psychology.
  Describes various pathologies.
  Compares different notations.
  Suggests new combinations.  Example crowsfeet with multiplicities!
  Notes that newer diagrams (UML) seem to be worse than the older ones
  Applied in
.See [MoodyHeymansMatulevivius10]
.Close

MurphyBalke89
.Open MurphyBalke89
 John S Murphy & Karl G Balke
 Software Diagramming: A New Design Paradigm
 McGraw-Hill NY NY 1989 ISBN 0-07-044118-9 Lib Congress Card 89-83755  QA76.76 D47M95
 =IDEA Graphic DFD+Control
.Close

Ng05
.Open Ng05
 Pan-Wei Ng
 Effective business modeling with UML: describing business use cases and realizations
 IBM/Rational/library, downloaded (Nov 2005)
.See http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/rational/library/905.htm
 =DEMO MODELING BUSINESS PROCESSES UML profile USE CASE
 Business modeling profile: business use case, actors, workers, and entities.
 A business use case describes how an (outside) actor gets value from the business.
 "the true value in business modeling lies in understanding how seemingly piecemeal work-flows relate to each other."
 (dick)  |-"Do DFDs do it better?"
  Realizations model work processes, process automation, & information processes as interaction diagrams, class diagrams, and use case diagrams.
 One must choose names for messages so that they describe the responsibility of the receiving object.
  "the value of business use cases is to put use cases in context... how a group... deliver[s] business value."
.Close

NielsenShumate87
.Open NielsenShumate87
 Kjell W Nielsen & Ken Shumate
 Designing Large Real-Time Systems with Ada
 Commun ACM V30n8(Aug 1987)pp695-715
 =EXPERIENCE Ada DESIGN DFDs RTS outside-in PDL. reviews  DARTS  Cherry/PAM/PAMELA Booch and Buhr
 NONSEQUENTIAL: buffers+transporters+relays(ch01)
.See [Gomaa84]
.Close

NozekSchwartz88
.Open NozekSchwartz88
 John T Nosec & Ruth B schwartz
 User Validation of Information System Requirements: Some Empirical Results
 IEEE Trans Soft Eng VSE-14n9(Sep 1988)pp1372-1375
 =EXPERIMENTS compare DFD HIPO Flowchart narative and Warnier. Result no real differences except: HIPO showed structure and DFDs showed boundaries
.Close

Olsen93
.Open Olsen93
 Neil C Olsen
 The Software Rush Hour
 IEEE Software Magazine V10n5(Sep 1993)pp29-37; correspondence Robert L Glass V11n1(Jan 1994)pp6&7
 =THEORY PROCESS QUEUING DFD
.Box
Queuing model.
 change rate and service rate: like the function point model.
 measuring the process: quality and overloading.
 Control it: Change management.

Glass: root problem is bad estimation.
  "Maintenance is about enhancement not repair"
.Close.Box
.Close

Podeswa09
.Open Podeswa09
 Henry Podeswa
 The Business Analyst's Handbook
 Course Technology 2008 ISBN1-59863-565-4
 =MANUAL BUSINESS ANALYSIS PROCESS TECHNIQUES STANDARDS DIAGRAM TABLES TEMPLATES
 Comprehensive
Includes definitive information on activity diagrams, block diagrams, BPD, Business Process Modeling, Business Use Case, Cause-and-effect diagrams, Class diagrams, comunication diagrams, DFDs, ... etc.
.Close

Poston89
.Open Poston89
 Robert M Poston
 Proposed Standard Eases tool Interconnection(Standards News)
 IEEE Software v6 n6(Nov 1989) p69-70
 =NEWS STANDARD engineering DFD ERD Reality System
.Close

Raeder85
.Open Raeder85
 Georg Raeder
 A Survey of Current Graphical Programming Techniques
 IEEE Computer Magazine V18n8(Aug 1985)pp11-25
 =SURVEY flowcharts vs Nassi-Shneiderman vs STD vs Petrie Nets vs DFDs + Omega PegaSys Pecan PiP
 letter from Bo Sanden IEEE Computer Magazine V19n2(Feb 1986)p102: JSP missed out
.Close

RameshJarke01
.Open RameshJarke01
 Balasubramaniam Ramesh & Mathias Jarke
 Toward Reference Models for Requirements Traceability
 IEEE Trans Software Engineering  V27n1(Jan 2001)pp58-93
 =POLL TOOLs REQUIREMENTS MODEL REMAP  DEMO KBSA  ConceptBase DFD ERD
  Reference models describe ideas that are shared across many pieces of software.  They take extra effort up-front but can be reused as a source in many projects.
 4 year study of how requirements are traced in American software development.  Focus groups, interviews, tools.
 One size does not fit all: there are low and high end users of traceability.
 RameshJarke01_Requirements_Metamodel::=following
.Net
 STAKEHOLDER, SOURCE, OBJECT : Sets,
 TRACES_TO:@(Object, Object),
 MANAGES:@(STAKEHOLDER, SOURCE),
 DOCUMENTS: @(SOURCE, OBJECT),
 HAS_ROLES_IN: @(STAKEHOLDER, OBJECT | TRACES_TO)
.Close.Net RameshJarke01_Requirements_Metamodel
  Generate particular models by specializing and instantiating parts of the meta-model.
 dimensions:= What >< Who >< Where >< Why >< when.
 Lower level users ConceptBase: requirements, compliance verification procedures, system subsystems components, external systems.  Tend to not document rationales.
 High end users need 4 separate diagrams. Includes rationales.
  Implemented the high level model using 
.See [SLATE].
 SLATE::tool="system Level Automation Tool for Engineers".
 Input into DFDs and ERDs and CASE tools.
 Distinguishes 18 types of links.
.Close

RobinsonBerrisford94
.Open RobinsonBerrisford94
 Keith Robinson & Graham Berrisford
 Object-oriented SSADM
 Prentice Hall Inc Upper Sddle River NJ 1994 ISBN 0-13-309444-8  
.See [CR]
9504-0236& 
.See [CR]
9510-0775
 =HOWTO SSADM DAD DFD ERD ELH HCI LDD OBJECT-ORIENTED
 (CR9504-0236)|-`Model systems Inc., SSADM Vn 4, conceptual modeling, not university text`.
 (CR9510-0775)|- six parts(intro, 3models(relational,process,dynamic)+terms, OOP, entity data modeling, external design(UI), Reuse), 3-Schema Architecture

Less emphasis on DFD.
More on HCI interaction design.
.Close

RobinsonBPrior95
.Open RobinsonBPrior95
 Barbara Robinson & Mary Prior
 Systems Analysis Techniques
 Int Thomson Computer Press Boston MA 1995 ISBN 1-85032-183-3 
.See [CR]
9609-0690
 =HOWTO DFD ERD DAD ELH Entity-event matrices ?SSADM?
.Close

RossAshby56
.Open RossAshby56
 W Ross Ashby
 An Introduction to cybernetics
 University Paperback 1964 (Methuen london) (Harper & Row USA)
 =TEXT CYBERNETICS =CLASSIC DFD formal dynamic Reality
.Close

Rumbaughetal90
.Open Rumbaughetal90
 James E. Rumbaugh & Michael R. Blaha &  William J Premeriani & Frederick Eddy & William Lorenson
 Object-Oriented Modeling and Design
 Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs NJ 1990 CR9404-0198
 =HOWTO DFDs OBJECT-ORIENTED OMT? Dynamic Harel STATECHART
.Box
QV Premerianietal90, William J Premeriani & Michael R. Blaha & James E. Rumbaugh & Thomas A Varwig, An Object-Oriented Relational Database, Commun ACM V33n11(Nov 1990)pp99-109.
Reviewed IEEE Software Magazine V9n6(Nov 1990)p118 by Michael Lutz
 Michael Lutz refers to Coleman & Hayes using VDM at OOPSLA 91
.Close.Box
.Close

Ryant95
.Open Ryant95
 Ivan Ryant
 The correctly Analysed System Which Behaves Incorrectly
 ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes V20n2 (Apr 1995)pp58-61
 =DEMO RISKS REQUIREMENTS DFDs ELHs MSC
.Box
DFDs and OOA life cycles go wrong when the system is timing dependent - need a combined timing and flow diagram - to express protocols.

Misreads DFDs, confuses SA with SD.

Notes that even DP systems can have timing dependenceies.

 See 
.See [MSC]
, Message Sequence Charts
.Close.Box
.Close

SchreiberEtal01
.Open SchreiberEtal01
 Guus Schreiber & Hans Akkermans & Anjo Anjewierden & Robert de Hoog & Nigel Shadbolt & Walter Van de Velde & Bob Wielinga
 Knowledge Engineering and Management: the CommonKADS Methodology
 MIT Press Cambridge MA 2000  ISBN 0-262-193000-0 QA76.76.E95K5773 1999
 =HANDBOOK UML DFD DATA CML BNF
 CommonKADS ::= http://www.csci.commonkads.uva.nl/.
.Close

SemmensBryant99
.Open SemmensBryant99
 Lesley Semmens & Tony Bryant
 Rigorous Review Technique
 In 
.See [HincheyBowen99]
pp231-254
 =DEMO EXPERIENCE METHODS Z SSADM TELSTAR BT( British telecom) FORMAL SQA STRUCTURE  ANALYSIS DESIGN DFD ER DATA RRT
 RRT::="Rigorous Review Technique".
 How to use Z to check structured method outputs.
 It is easier to teach simplified Z mathematics to analysts than to teach a mathematically competent an understanding of analytical skills.
.Close

SharbleCohen93
.Open SharbleCohen93
 Robert C Sharble<shabcg00@ccmail.ca.boeing.com> & Samuel S Cohen<cohen@kgv1.profs.ca.boeing.com>
 The Object-Oriented Brewery: A Comparison of Two Object-Oriented Development Methods
 ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes V18n2(Apr 1993)pp60-73
 =EXPERIENCE METHODS OBJECT-ORIENTED ANALYSIS DESIGN OOA/D RESPONSIBILITies SCENARIO DATA FUNCTION DAD
.Box
ref to Wirfs-BrockWilkersonWiener90 for responsibillity driven design and to RubinGoldberg92 for scenarios.
00SD::={OOA, OOD, OOP},
p61: "OOSD has its roots in OOP and has evolved bottom up from programming to design and finally to analysis."

Names 4 approaches: focus on data in objects, focus on processes in objects, focus events and states of objects, focus on the responsibillities that each object has to the whole

Compares data vs responsibillities in theory and in an experiment
Objects encapsulate intelligence, colloborate with other objects, to fulfill responsibilities needed by scenarios.
CRC_objects::=$ Net{name:Class, reponsibilities: #Responsibility, collaborators:#Collaborator }.

 (theory, results)|- DFDs+ERD considered harmful
.Close.Box
.Close

ShawMetal95
.Open ShawMetal95
 Mary Shaw & Robert DeLine & Daniel V Klein & Theodore L Ross & David M Ross & Gregory Zelesnik
 Abstractions for Software Architecture and Tools to support them
 IEEE Trans on Software Eng VSE-21n4(Apr 1995)pp314-315 
.See [CR]
9602-0120 D.2.1
 =DEMO ARCHITECTURE SET? DFD TIMING
.Close

ShlaerMellor88
.Open ShlaerMellor88
 Sally Shlaer & Stephen J Mellor(Project Technology Inc)
 Object-Oriented Systems Analysis: Modeling the world in Data
 Prentice Hall NJ 1988
 =HOWTO SAD ERD DFD DATA Object-Oriented Reality
.Close

ShlaerMellor92
.Open ShlaerMellor92
 Sally Shlaer & Stephen J Mellor(Project Technology Inc)
 Object Lifecycles: Modeling the World in States
 Yourdon Press series Prentice Hall NJ 1992 CR9304-0192(D.1.5)
 =HOWTO METHOD SAD ERD DFD Dynamics FSM Reality
 Method tested in Fayadetal93
.Close

ThayerDorfman90
.Open ThayerDorfman90
 Richard H Thayer & Merlin Dorfman(eds)
 System and Software Requirements Engineering
 IEEE CS Press Tutorial Cat No.EH0304-6 QA76.758 S87
 =TEXT BOOK n-squared, std decision tables decision trees pdl statecharts rnet sdl petri net sa dfds era ooa ssadm jsd descartes(JE Urban's DDD), STARTS Z srem psa/psl glossary(pp605-676), bibliography(pp677-695) case studies(553-603)
.Close

Tracz92
.Open Tracz92
 Will Tracz<tracz@owgvm0.vnet.ibm.com>
 Domain Analysis Working Group Report - First International Workshop on Software Reusability(July 1991)
 ACM SIGSOFT SEN v17 n3(Jul 1992) pp27-34
 REUSE "A domain analysis of Domain Analysis"
.Box
Research area. Extracting and organizing info/objects&operations about a class of systems/problem domain to make it reusable
Broagder form of Requirements analysis - generic system.
Can be used for more than reuse, covers more than one system, 
Models::=definitional|strutural|functional, is a comparatively clumsy way of expressing persistent data structures -::=taxonomies|classes|thesaurus, Structural::= conceptual_graphs |ERD| termsystems, functional::=SADT|STDs|DFDs.
Text+functional+objects+Presentation
DFDs+ERDs most popular...
"It is importatn to bound the domain that one is analyzing, otherwise one will never know when one is done doing the analysis"
.Close.Box
.Close

Tracz95a
.Open Tracz95a
 Will Tracz
 DSSA(Domain-Specific Software Architecture)
 ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes V20n3(Jul 1995)pp49-60
.Box
Example (theatre seat booking system) with insights
Domain model::=Net(scenarios, domain dictionary, context diagram, ERD, DFDs, State transition models, object model)

reference requirements::=Net{ functional, nonfunctional, implementation}

reference architecture::=follwing
.Net
 model, configuration decision tree, schema or design record, dependency diagram, component interface descriptions, constratins, rationale
.Close.Net

How toy example compares to real world.

-----
Insights
 p50: distingush problem space from solution/design space.
domain analysis is about a family of systems or a product line
informal needs statement is a place to start
separate functional requirements from design and implementation requirements
scenarios are good...
 p52: domain dictionaries evolve, not everyone agrees, must record all definitions,
 p54: iterative, do not overspecify objects at the domain level
 PR define problem space, QST define soltion space.
 p57: styles of architecture
 p58: requirements need to evolve thru feedback, reflect back into documentation, rationales and interdependences, separate user interface from functionallity
 p58: subsets of requirements determine design decisions/configurations
 p61: Use tools and methods alrady in use for doamin modelling as well.
.Close.Box
.Close

Tse94
.Open Tse94
 T H Tse
 Comparative Review of 5 methods of Object-oriented analysis and design
 Computer Reviews (Apr 1994) CR9404-0198
 =SURVEY METHODS OBJECT-ORIENTED ANALYSIS DESIGN
.Box
Compares
.List

.See [MartinOdell92]
beginners, fundamental concepts

.See [CoadYourdon91]
beginers, brief

.See [Embleyetal92]
advanced analysis integrated view exercises

.See [Booch91]
advanced for OOPing

.See [Rumbaughetal90]
advanced exercises
.Close.List

Conclusion: more in common than different
.List
 - graphics, ERA++, DFDs, STDs
 - is-a, is-part-of, is-a-member-of,...
 - gradual transition from analisysis to design
 - use DBMS, or OOPL
.Close.List
.Close.Box
.Close

TuretkenSchuffShardaOw04
.Open TuretkenSchuffShardaOw04
 Ozgur Turetken & David Schuff & Ramesh Sharda & Terence T Ow
 Supporting systems analysis and design through fish-eye views
 Commun ACM V47n9(Sep 2004)pp72-77
 =EXPERIMENT GRAPHIC DIAGRAMS LAYOUT DFDs ERDs
 DOI ::= degree of interest, determines size.
 normal degree of interest:=original importance / distance from focus. Embed focal diagram in its context.
 for DFD, DOI = 1 - const*dL, dL=number of levels between focal diagram and element.Shaded contextsubjects did better with fish-eye.
 ERD. Size lower for longer  path lengths. (not tested).
.Close

TyranGeorge02
.Open TyranGeorge02
 Craig K Tyran & Joey F George
 Improving Software Inspections with Group Process Support
 Commun ACM V45n9(Sep 2002)pp87-92
 =EXPERIMENT TOOL TEAM INSPECTION GSS OUTLINER
 classic factorial experiment 10 group, 30 students, inspecting SRS with Data dictionary and DFD.
 Using workstations to input and view text contributions to an inspection of a specification leads to significantly more defects being found.
  There was less domination, sidetracking, and forgetting things while waiting for others.
 There was some extra information overload and some contributions were not processed.
 Synergy and satisfaction decreased decreased a little.
 Most inspectors accepted the GSS.
.Close

Upson90
.Open Upson90
 Graig Upson
 Tools for Creating Visions
 UNIX Review V8n8(Aug 1990)pp39-47
 =ADVERT graphic DFD
.Close

ValacichGeorgeHoffer01
.Open ValacichGeorgeHoffer01
 Joseph S Valacich & Joey F George & Jeffrey A Hoffer
 Essentials of Systems analysis and Design
 Pearson Prentice Hall Uppersaddle River NJ 2001/2004
 =TEXT SYSTEMS PEOPLE DATA REQUIREMENTS DFDs ERDs HCI  UML RAD CASE
.Close

Vazques94
.Open Vazques94
 Federico Vazques
 Identification of Complete Data Flow Diagrams
 ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes V19n3(Jul 1994)pp36-40
 =THEORY DFD V&V ALGEBRA FORMAL
.Close

Vazques96
.Open Vazques96
 Federico Vazques
 An Algebra Approach to the Deduction of Data Flow Diagrams and Object Oriented Diagrams from Algebraic Specifications
 ACM SIGSOFT Software Eng Notes V21n4(Jul 1996)pp71-80
 =THEORY term algebras for DFDs and Contasttine's OO models
.Close

VesseyConger94
.Open VesseyConger94
 Iris Vessey & Sue A Conger
 Requirements Specification: Learning Object& Process& and Data Methodologies
 Commun ACM V37n5(May 1994)pp102-113
 Badly flawed comparison of novice experiences with Booch OOA, DFD, and not-quite-JSD "data" approaches to Requirements.
 Only 6 students
 but literature supports result: novices prefer procedural approaches
.Close

WardMellor85
.Open WardMellor85
 Paul T Ward & S J Mellor
 Structured Development for Real-Time Systems
 Yourdon Press NY 1985
 =HANDBOOK SAD DFD STD ERDs dynamics PURPOSE Reality Technical
.Close

WardP86
.Open WardP86
 Paul Ward
 The Transformation Schema: An Extension of the DFD to Represent Control & Timing in 
.See [BerglandZave86]
pp198-210
 =formal DFD dynamics
.Close

WardP89
.Open WardP89
 Paul T Ward
 How to Integrate Object Orientation with Structured Analysis and Design
 IEEE Software v6n2(Mar 1989)pp74-75
 =IDEA object-oriented SAD DFD ERD
 Overtaken by various Unified langaues and processes
.Close

WeinbergV79
.Open WeinbergV79
 Victor Weinberg
 Structured Analysis
 Prentice Hall Int 1979 Copyrighted 1980 1978 by Yourdon Inc. NY NY
 =HANDBOOK SAD DFD sequential modules System PURPOSE
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WeiSholl82
.Open WeiSholl82
 Martin C Wei & Howard A Sholl
 An Expression Model for Extraction and Evaluations of Parallelism in Control Structures
 IEEE Trans C-31n9 Sep 1982.
 =formal DFD NONSEQUENTIAL
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Wieringa98
.Open Wieringa98
 Roel Wieringa
 A Survey of Structured and Object-oriented software specification methods and techniques
 ACM Comp Surveys V30n4(Dec 1998)pp459-527 CR9906-0434
 =SURVEY higraphs statechart ERD UML DFD FSM JSD SDL activity sequence collaboration + 6 structured and 19 0bject-oriented methods
 Conclusion: UML has something from all of the techniques
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Yourdon93
.Open Yourdon93
 Yourdon Inc
 Yourdon systems method: Model-driven systems development
 Yourdon Press Englewood Cliffs NJ 1993 CR9402-0059 ISBN 0-13-045162
 =ADVERT model systems analysis design
 Introduction, modeling tools (ERD, DFD, STD, specs, ADTs, ELCycles),
 Essential enterpise model, Relation between systems and enterprise,
 System essential model.
 Appendix: set theory, ADTs, State-event diagrams
 Refs pre 1986.
 Compare
.See [BanslerBoedker93]
.Close.Box
.Close

Zahniser94
.Open Zahniser94
 Richard A Zahniser<70313.1325@compuserve.com>
 Design By Walking Arround(DBWA)
 Comm ACM V36n9(Sep 1993)pp115-123
 =ADVERT DBWA Method non-sequential DFDs ERAs Objects
 highly concurrent blitz 7 or 8 views using storyboarding (brainstorm on blackboard?) team work 30 deliverables
 Months of work done in weeks.
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