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Bibliographic Item (1.0)


  1. Michael Jackson & Graham Twaddle
  2. Business Process Implementation: Building Workflow Systems,
  3. Addison Wesley ACM Press 199? ISBN 0-201-17768-4 3rd hd58.87.j32 1997
  5. workflow_problem_frame::= following,

    1. |- (minimal_workflow_frame): The machine supports an office that interacts with an outside world.
    2. |-The prime business need is to keep track of long term commitments, contracts, and obligations.
    3. |-There are rigid business rules and flexible activities.
    4. |-activities are multitasked error correcting that proceed at a human pace.
    5. |-not safety critical.

    (End of Net)

  6. theoretical_method:= data; process; tasks; workflow.
  7. In practice incremental and iterative delivery is feasible.
  8. data:=simple ERD, like SSADM.
  9. task_types:=initiated performed content [task_details].
  10. initiated:=X | T | P | I. X=eXternal, T=Time, P=follows Preceeding, I=Internally.
  11. performed= A | M, A=Automatically, M=not A, Manually,
  12. content:= E | K| U | D | O, E=dataEntry, K=checK, U=Update, D=Decision, O=Output.
  13. Tasks involve entities.
  14. LC:=" life cycle".
  15. An entity life cycle is a defined sequence of stages but an entity may not progress thru the stages in such a simple way. Office work may backtrack, hang up, fail, or multitask parts of stages at one time. Stages may not be omitted. Backtracking (a setback) means handling side-effects: beneficent, neutral, and intolerable. cf [JSP].
  16. In a stage contains a task that fails then the current life cycle fails and initiates a different one instead.
  17. Stages determine states: State = ("In" | "Failed" | "Awaiting" | "Halted" ) stage.
  18. Within a Stage many tasks can execute in parallel. some can spawn (one|many (inclusive | exclusive)) subtasks (sometimes). One subtask can be spawned by many tasks, and a subtasks can restart their parent tasks (in a loop).
  19. Task states = null; start; (n/a | run | failed | passed). passed states do not spawn subtasks, run states must start their subtasks. Task states determine life-cycle states.
  20. There are rules for assigning tasks to stages.
  21. One life cycle can depend on another one. Changing stage depends on one(or all) other linked entities of a given type is|are past a certain stage. Tasks can start and halt other life cycles.
  22. Entities are placed in classes. Classes form a heterarchy -- multiple inheritance. Also classification entities -- classes of objects each defining a class of object!
  23. Entities play roles in entity life cycles. roles require only a subset of the attributes, Also several types of entity can play the part in a single role.
  24. Datasets are structured navigation paths between entity types. from A access one B and many Cs. They are chosen to fit tasks.
  25. Programs support tasks - within task context and using task content. actions include SET_RESULT, START_LC, SUSPEND_LC, RESUME_LC, CANCEL_LC, SETBACK_LC, WAIT..., SIMPLE_CHECK, COMPLEX_CHECK, SIMPLE_SET, APPLICABLE_WHEN. Some tasks must not be repeated, others may be repeated when backtracking.
  26. Decision Tables!
  27. Tasks and life cycle work mainly define wrong sequences. Work flows help get good things done. Work flows are about scheduling, options, menus, and efficiency. Work flows are based on a relational data base:
  28. task_details:=
    1. Each task is in a stage of a life cycle of an entity.
    2. Each task has a task_type that has a program, data set, and a set of skills.
    3. Tasks are related to users who can/should do them by Skills and by stages and departments for example.
  29. Detailed reporting and so tuning of the workflows.
  30. Life cycle definitions and the office workflow are also held in the data base. "Process representations become data". Process data is PLANs and FEATUREs.
  31. The only purpose of documentation is understanding.... but if documentation is in a data base is also useful to the software.
  32. dick:the office workflow frame fits agile software development process.

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